Candida tropicalis

Structure and Physiology

Candida tropicalis is a yeast that is closely related and often forms in biofilms with C. albicans

Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Structure and Physiology

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a Gram-positive, coccal-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium that is responsible for many difficult to treat infections. MRSA is any strain of Staphylococcus aureus that has developed a resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics through the process of natural selection. Beta-lactam antibiotics include penicillin, methicillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, and cephalosporins. Resistance does not increase the virulence of the microbe but does make it more difficult to treat.

Enterococcus faecalis (VRE)

Structure and Physiology

Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, nonmotile, facultative anaerobic microbe.  Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) are strains that are resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin. There are six different types of vancomycin resistance shown by Enterococcus: Van-A, Van-B, Van-C, Van-D, Van-D, Van-E, Van-F. Van-A, Van-B, Van-C have been tested in clinical trials and have shown to be resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The current treatment in the U.S for VRE is linezolid.

Acinetobacter baumannii

Structure and Phisiology

This bacteria is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped aerobe. A. baumannii can be responsible for infections such as pneumonia and septicemia in immunodeficient patients. The natural reservoir of this organism remains to be determined. These are among a class of bacteria that are "naturally transformable" - meaning that the incorporation of exogenous genetic material can occur due to a special physiological state incorporated by the bacteria, which may be the reason for the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in some strains of A. baumannii.

Enterococcus faecium

Structure and Physiology

Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive, coccal shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium that can occur in pairs or chains. Its natural habitat includes the gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity, and vaginal tract of a wide variety of animals. The colonies that are produced appear wet and have an average size of 1-2 mm. E. faecium can survive for long periods of time inside hospital, sewage, and soil.

Enterobacter aerogenes

Structure and Physiology

This bacteria is Gram-negative, rod-shaped, and radially surrounded by flagellum. It can be found in dairy products, soil, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals. E. aerogenes is closely related to a wide range of other common microorganisms including Escherichia, Klebsiella, Shigella, and Serratia.   

Enterobacter cloacae

Structure and Physiology

This bacteria is a Gram-negative, rod shaped, facultative anaerobe commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. It is not usually a primary pathogen although it is sometimes associated with urinary and respiratory tract infection.

Streptococcus pyogenes

Structure and Physiology

Staphylococcus aureus

Structure and Physiology

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, coccal-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium. During binary fission, the two daughter cells that are produced do not completely separate. Incomplete separations of the cells result in the cluster formation. S. aureus is a catalase-positive bacterium that is able to combat the electronegative oxidizing effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS).