Candida tropicalis

Structure and Physiology

Candida tropicalis is a yeast that is closely related and often forms in biofilms with C. albicans

Penicillium sp.

Structure and Physiology

This fungi genus contains over 300 species which have roles in the production of antibiotics (Penicillin), organic acids, and cheeses. These saprophytic molds are notorious for fruit and vegetable spoilage, causing a fuzzy blue texture. Penicillium is a latin root meaning "painter's brush", which is used as a descripitor for the chains of conidia produced by this genus that resemble a broom.

Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

Structure and Physiology

Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (formerly Rhodotorula rubra) is a saprophytic yeast. A ubiquitious environmental inhabitant, it can be isolated from soil, water, and air samples.

Transmission and Disease

This yeast can be a human pathogen in rare instances and has been responsible for cases of fungal peritonitis, meningitis, and catheter infections in immuno-compromised patients.

Trichophyton mentagrophytes

Structure and Physiology

Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a fungus that is part of a group known as dermatophytes.

Transmission and Disease

This fungus is known to cause a skin infection known as Dermatophytosis or Ringworm which appears on a person's skin as an inflamed circular pattern. The invasion of the skin, hair, and nails can cause diseases such as tines pedis or athlete’s foot.

Aspergillus niger

Structure and Physiology

This fungi is a conidiophore, or a sexual spore generating aerobic fungus. A. niger is a xerophilic fungi, which means that it is a mold that does not require free water for growth and can grow in humid environments. This organism is responsible for food spoilage and black mold. 

Candida albicans

Structure and Physiology

Candida albicans is a diploid, Gram-positive fungus that can take on a unicellular (yeast) or multicellular (hyphae, pseudohyphae) form. A unique characteristic to this microbe is that it can switch between different phenotypes. The change between the two phenotypes can happen multiple times and is spontaneous. Studies show strong evidence that these phenotype switches are due to the change in the control of regulatory gene expression. One phenotype of this microbe is white, round cells in smooth colonies.