Canine Parainfluenza Virus

Virus, Enveloped

VirusCanine Parainfluenza Virus
StructureEnveloped
GenomeSingle stranded RNA, negative sense
FamilyParamyxoviridae
Primary HostDogs
Disease(s) CausedKennel cough
SymptomsRespiratory illness, dry cough
Potential ComplicationsPneumonia
Transmission ModeContact with infected secretions, aerosols
Sites of Community OutbreaksKennels, shelters

Importance of Canine Parainfluenza Virus

Canine parainfluenza virus is an enveloped virus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. First reported in the late 1960s in laboratory dogs, it is now thought to play a major role in kennel cough.

Canine parainfluenza is highly contagious and its prevalence in a given area is directly related to the density of the dog population. Therefore, outbreaks are common in shelters and kennels with a high population of animals.

Infection is typically limited to the upper respiratory tract and symptoms are mild, consisting of low grade fever, dry cough, and pharyngitis. However, co-infection with another pathogen is common, resulting in a complicated form of disease. Symptoms of this complicated form, commonly found in young or immunocompromised dogs, include lethargy, pneumonia, and loss of appetite.

Importance of Disinfection: Survival of Canine Parainfluenza Virus on Surfaces and Potential for Transmission via Fomites

Canine parainfluenza virus is transmitted primarily through aerosols. It can also be spread through direct and indirect contact with infected secretions.

Vaccines do exist for canine parainfluenza virus. These vaccines will not prevent infection from occuring but can lessen the severity of symptoms.

As an enveloped virus, canine parainfluenza virus is susceptible to inactivation by environmental factors, such as temperature and humidity. Aerosolized parainfluenza viruses have been shown to remain infectious for 4-12 days on a nonporous, plastic surface at 18-20 °C. Canine parainfluenza virus is expected to be susceptible to a range of disinfectants.

References
  • Buonavoglia, Canio, and Vito Martella. "Canine respiratory viruses."Veterinary research 38.2 (2007): 355-373.
  • Parkinson, ALAN J., et al. "Survival of human parainfluenza viruses in the South Polar environment." Applied and environmental microbiology 46.4 (1983): 901-905.