Scientific fields such as physics and math are considered to be exact sciences. Biology, including microbiology, is different. Microbiological systems possess a greater number of uncontrollable variables which results in increased experimental complexity and decreased experimental accuracy. The great number of variables at play in a given microbiological study arise from the inherent complexity of living systems. Each variable contributes a certain degree of error which, depending on the system, may propagate linearly or non-linearly.