Antimicrobial

EPA Residual Self-Disinfectant (RSD) Method

The residual self-disinfection (RSD) method follows EPA Protocol # 01-1A. This is the only method which can currently be used to substantiate long-term residual disinfectant claims with the EPA. It evaluates the residual disinfectant efficacy of antimicrobial products after application to inanimate, nonporous, and non-food contact hard surfaces. This test...

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ISO 21702 – Measurement of Antiviral Activity on Plastics and Other Non-porous Surfaces

Modified ISO 21702 Method-Measurement of Antiviral Activity on Plastics and Other Non-porous Surfaces SUMMARY OF THE ISO 21702 TEST The method is quantitative and results tend to be reproducible, provided the inoculum does not spill off of the target area after being covered with the thin film. The test method...

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Simulated Use Test for High-Level Disinfectants

Prior to initiation of the experiment, the active ingredient in the test substance is measured, the pH is taken and the concentration of the test substance is validated using titration analysis. Then, the test substance is diluted to the minimum recommended concentration (MRC) and confirmed again by titration analysis...

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Tuberculocidal Activity of Disinfectants (AOAC 965.12)

The AOAC Tuberculocidal Activity of Disinfectants method is specified by US EPA as a method which can be used to substantiate tuberculocidal efficacy claims for disinfectants. It is a modified version of the AOAC Use-Dilution test method and particularly appropriate for dilutable disinfectants. Summary of the AOAC Tuberculocidal Activity of...

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Virucidal Towelettes Effectiveness Test

Virucidal Efficacy Guidelines The U.S. EPA recommends the use of internationally-recognized standard test methods as the basis for pre-saturated towelette virucidal efficacy evaluations: AOAC Germicidal Spray Products as Disinfectants Test, Modified for Wipes Brief Summary of the Test The U.S. EPA recommends the use of internationally-recognized standard test methods as the basis for...

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Zone of Inhibition Test for Antimicrobial Activity

A Zone of Inhibition Test, also called a Kirby-Bauer Test, is a qualitative method used clinically to measure antibiotic resistance and industrially to test the ability of solids and textiles to inhibit microbial growth. Researchers who develop antimicrobial textiles, surfaces, and liquids use this test as a quick and...

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Rinsability Test

In the usage of high-level disinfectants, the possibility of contact with these substances is something that needs to be ensured does not occur if the active ingredient could be harmful. To ensure that the level of active ingredient in/on the surface in question is at a level that would...

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ISO 20743 – Assessment of Antibacterial Finished Products

The Assessment of Antibacterial Finished Products The International Standard (ISO) 20743 method, titled "Textiles - Determination of Antibacterial Activity of Antibacterial Finished Products", is designed to test the ability of fabrics that have been treated with antimicrobial agents to prevent microbial growth and to kill microorganisms, over an 18-24 hour...

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ISO 27447 – Test for Antimicrobial Activity of Photocatalytic Materials

The ISO 27447 method, titled "Test Method for Antibacterial Activity of Semiconducting Photocatalytic Materials", determines the ability of photocatalytic materials to inhibit the growth of microorganisms or kill them. Both hard surfaces (non-porous) and textiles could contain a photocatalyst or have photocatalytic films and can be tested using this method by measuring the number...

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Laundering Services for Antimicrobial Textiles

One way companies differentiate antimicrobial textiles is by increasing durability, or the number of wash cycles an antimicrobial fabric can withstand. Durability enhances consumer appeal and is an important consideration to buyers at large apparel companies. Textiles which retain antimicrobial efficacy after 25, or even 50 laundering cycles will...

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Material Compatibilty Soak Test

In order to make claim that a material is compatible with a specific substance it is always good to have a firm understanding of just how much exposure a material can withstand without any detrimental interactions. At Microchem Laboratory, we can custom tailor a material compatibility soak test to...

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Mechanical Abrasion Test

Mechanical Abrasion Test: Procedure at a Glance In the standardized testing of surfaces with real-world applications it is important not to lose sight of the real-world conditions these surfaces will face. At Microchem Laboratory, the mechanical abrasion test seeks to recreate the cleaning conditions that materials will see on a...

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Microorganisms Maintained at Antimicrobial Test Labs

Welcome to our microbial library page. Here, you will find a list of most microorganisms in our collection. We hope you will find the microorganisms needed for your project. If not, we will be happy to source it for you (BSLI and select BSLII only). Antimicrobial Test Laboratories has drawn...

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MIL-STD-810G Method 508.6 Fungal Resistance Test

The MIL-STD-810G are a series of laboratory standards designed by the United States military to test the endurance capabilities of materials based on the expected field conditions they will meet during their lifetimes. Method 508.6 is a material fungal resistance test developed to determine if the material components comprising the...

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Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) Test

The MBC test determines the lowest concentration at which an antimicrobial agent will kill a particular microorganism.  The MBC is determined using a series of steps, undertaken after a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) test has been completed. MBC testing is useful for comparing the germ-killing activity of several antimicrobial agents at once. Summary...

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Fungicidal Activity of Disinfectants (AOAC Method 955.17)

The AOAC Fungicidal Activity of Disinfectants Test method examines the fungicidal capabilities of water-soluble fungicides intended for use in disinfection of inanimate objects. The AOAC Fungicidal Activity of Disinfectants Test is specified by the US EPA as a method which can be used to substantiate fungicidal efficacy claims. Below, you...

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Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Test (MIC)

Labeled Photo of Microtiter MIC Test - Labeled Photo of Standard MIC Test - Layperson's Summary To do an MIC, one inoculates the test substance with an invisible but high number of microorganisms, then observes the mixture of microorganisms and test substance to see if it changes from clear to...

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Hard Surface Time-Kill Test for Disinfectants

Summary of the Hard Surface Time-Kill Test     A microbial culture is prepared. For most bacteria, a 24 hour culture in nutrient broth works well. For most fungi, a spore preparation from a saline wash works well.   A volume of microbial culture (usually 0.010 ml to 0.020 ml) is placed onto the...

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Pre-Saturated Towelette Disinfection Test

The EPA pre-saturated towelette disinfection test method is used to substantiate efficacy claims for disinfectant towelettes.     This method is a modification of the AOAC Germicidal Spray Products Test for Disinfectants. Instead of contaminated test surfaces being sprayed with disinfectant as in the germicidal spray products test, they are wiped with...

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ASTM E2197 – Quantitative Disk Carrier Test

The ASTM E2197 method is designed to test bactericidal, fungicidal, sporicidal, and virucidal capabilities of liquid germicides on non-porous hard surfaces using a 1 cm diameter brushed stainless steel surface. This method has been accepted by the U.S. EPA to substantiate efficacy claims for disinfectants against endospores of Clostridium difficile. The method...

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ASTM E2315 – Liquid Suspension Time-Kill Test

The liquid suspension time-kill test is excellent for disinfectant product developers because it is a fast, relatively inexpensive, and reproducible way to measure the biocidal potential of a liquid antimicrobial formulation. It consists of directly inoculating a liquid test substance with a high concentration of test microorganisms and then...

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ASTM G29 Test for Resistance to Algae

The ASTM G29 test method evaluates an antimicrobial surface's ability to resist algal attack. Such testing is important because algae are ubiquitously found in and around bodies of water. Many of these aqueous environments are associated with human activities, such as swimming pools. Under the right conditions, algae can...

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Chlorine Equivalency Method for Sanitizers (AOAC 955.16)

Officially called the Chlorine (available) in Disinfectants Germicidal Equivalent Concentration, AOAC method 955.16 is typically used to test the efficacy of halogens such as chlorine, bromine, iodine. It is a rather unique method among disinfectant and sanitizer test methods, designed to identify the amount of a test product that is...

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CRE Testing: Microchem Laboratory

Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have recently gained notoriety because infections caused by this class of microorganism are difficult if not impossible to treat clinically, resulting in an estimated mortality rate among infected individuals of up to 50%. Microchem Laboratory has been testing antimicrobial products for efficacy against CRE since early 2012. Below, Microchem Laboratory provides...

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AOAC Germicidal and Detergent Sanitizing Action of Disinfectants (AOAC 960.09)

The AOAC Germicidal and Detergent Sanitizing Action of Disinfectants Test Method is specified by US EPA as a method which can be used to substantiate efficacy claims for certain food-contact surface sanitizers. It is particularly appropriate for dilutable sanitizers that do not utilize halogens (chlorine, bromine). Test Method Summary Cultures...

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Custom Virucidal Efficacy Testing

Custom Study Set-Up Custom virucidal studies can be performed for device testing, on-site antimicrobial active ingredient generators, and many other product types. All studies can be conducted according to EPA and FDA regulatory efficacy requirements, and customized according to the unique needs and timelines of the Study Sponsor with the...

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AOAC Germicidal Spray Test Modified for Fungi

Below, you will find a summary of the AOAC Germicidal Spray Products Test method, modified for use with fungi. The method is sometimes modified for use with fungi to support supplemental efficacy (fungicidal) label claims for pesticides registered with the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Trichophyton mentagtrophytes is the preferred test...

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EPA Test Method for Residual Self-Sanitizing Activity of Dried Chemical Residues on Hard, Non-Porous Surfaces

The residual self-sanitization (RSS) method, EPA Protocol # 01-1A, is the only method which can currently be used to substantiate long-term sanitization claims with the EPA. It evaluates the residual sanitizing efficacy of antimicrobial products after application to inanimate, nonporous, and non-food contact hard surfaces. This test method was initially...

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ASTM D3274 Fungal Defacement Rating Method

The ASTM D3274 Method details a standardized rating system designed to evaluate the degree of fungal resistance of surface coatings (e.g. paint films). This method is used for tests such as the ASTM D3273. Ratings are based on the percentage of surface fungal coverage and qualitative descriptions. While this...

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ASTM E1054 Neutralization Evaluation Test

The method is designed to test neutralizing agents for the purpose of inactivating, or quenching, active antimicrobial agents to ensure no inhibitory effects on microorganisms targeted for recovery. The method offers a wide array of neutralization options for test substances. Detailed within the method are the guidelines for neutralization...

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ASTM E1153 – EPA Non-Food Contact Sanitizer Test

The ASTM E1153 is a test method recognized by the EPA for the claim substantiation of sanitizers for use on non-food contact surfaces. For this reason, it is often referred to as the "non-food contact sanitizer" test. This test is performed by drying bacteria onto glass carriers, treating them with...

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ASTM E1428 “Pink Stain Test”

Some materials may become discolored or stained when microorganisms grow on them in the environment. The ASTM E1428 standard is used to evaluate the ability of synthetic polymeric materials containing antimicrobial agents to resist such staining, using the indicator staining organism Streptoverticullium reticulum. The ASTM E1428 method is straightforward and...

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Virucidal Efficacy Tests for EPA

Virucides are regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Recent EPA guidelines provide companies with several different options for testing virucides, including ASTM E1053, and AOAC Germicidal Spray Products Test modified for viruses. Any type of virucide can be tested using ASTM E1053. If a company prefers to utilize...

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AATCC 174 – Antimicrobial Activity Assessment of Carpets

Assessment of Antimicrobial Finishes on Carpet The American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) 174 method, titled "Antimicrobial Activity Assessment of Carpets", is designed to test the antimicrobial activity of new carpet materials. Within the official standard method, there are 3 procedures – qualitative and quantitative assessments of the...

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EPA Lower Certified Limit Testing Requirement

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently updated guidelines for antimicrobial efficacy testing. Formerly, EPA required the main tests for disinfection to be performed on several batches of product, with at least one batch aged for a minimum of 60 days.  The new guidelines do not change the...

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Spring Regulatory Sciences

  Spring Regulatory Sciences uses decades of experience to provide clients with efficient, practical, and cost-effective regulatory support for antimicrobial products. It provides complete company representation before the United States Environmental Protection Agency and all state governments. The company is located in Spring, TX a northern suburb of Houston. Spring Regulatory Sciences offers...

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Variability in Antimicrobial Testing

Introduction Scientific fields such as physics and math are considered to be exact sciences. Biology, including microbiology, is different. Microbiological systems possess a greater number of uncontrollable variables which results in increased experimental complexity and decreased experimental accuracy.  The great number of variables at play in a given microbiological study...

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Scientific & Regulatory Consultants, Inc

Scientific & Regulatory Consultants, Inc. (SRC) was started in 1996 by Sally Hayes and Rhonda Jones. SRC offers over 90 years of combined service to the pesticide and antimicrobial industry. Their staff draws from a broad range of expertise including research, development, manufacturing, quality, and registration experience in the antimicrobial...

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Toxcel

toXcel is a medium-sized consulting firm with offices in Gainesville, Virginia and affiliate locations in the United Kingdom and Canada. It provides a wide range of scientific, technical, and regulatory consulting services including federal, state, and regional registrations in North America, Europe, and other international markets. One of toXcel's...

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Delta Analytical Corporation

Delta Analytical Corporation is an antimicrobial and pesticide regulatory consulting firm located near EPA headquarters in the Washington, D.C. Metro area. The firm is most experienced with regard to federal and state registration of antimicrobial agents and pesticides, but well equipped to assist clients with other regulatory questions and...

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Technology Sciences Group, Inc (TSG)

Technology Sciences Group Inc. (TSG) provides state, federal and international expertise on a wide range of scientific and regulatory issues. With offices throughout North America and Europe, TSG assists companies in over 30 countries worldwide, including China, Japan and Australia. TSG works with chemical, pesticide, consumer product, food, personal care...

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MS2 Bacteriophage – A Viral Screening Tool

Introduction to MS2 Bacteriophage Many people are familiar with viruses that infect mammalian cells (e.g. Influenza, Poliovirus, or Rhinovirus), but there are also viruses capable of infecting bacterial cells. These viruses are called bacteriophages. Bacteriophages are easy to work with in the context of disinfectant testing and can provide valuable...

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Biological Aerosol Testing

Introduction Microchem Laboratory is one of just a few labs in the US to provide custom aerobiological testing services for antimicrobial devices and chemicals. Our laboratory has the capacity to perform testing with UV devices designed to decontaminate an entire room or with devices as small as a tabletop microbial sampler. We...

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Floor and Carpet Cleaners

Introduction Home floor care started way back in the early 19th century. With the advent of lavish home furnishings and the beginnings of carpeted and tiled floor, the need for cleaning devices grew rapidly. The Industrial Revolution sparked a great increase in technology and new machinery. As expected, the first...

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Whole Room Disinfection Devices

Introduction Disinfection of whole rooms is becoming increasingly vital in a multitude of industries. Customers and regulatory agencies are vigilantly tracking the habits of food production, livestock care, and healthcare facilities ability to limit hospital acquired infections. Whether the application is used to limit the spread of infection in a...

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Incorporated Antimicrobials or “Treated Articles”

A "Treated article" is industry-speak for a solid or semi-solid object or product rendered antimicrobial by incorporation of an active ingredient into or onto the object itself. For the purposes of this article, "treated articles" do not include medical devices or surfaces with claims to control microorganisms of public health...

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Introduction to Hand Sanitizers

Introduction Liquid hand sanitizers - mostly alcohol-based gels - have enjoyed an explosion in popularity in the last 10 years. If you have traveled by airplane or set foot in a classroom in the US lately, chances are you have seen hand sanitizers in use. Hand sanitizers do not serve as...

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EPA Treated Article Exemption

If Microchem Laboratory had a bacterial colony for each time one of our scientists explained the EPA treated article exemption to a customer, we'd have a loaded petri dish! Microbiology humor aside, our customers know we are glad to help them navigate the complicated world of antimicrobial regulations. If you...

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Antimicrobial Fabrics and Textiles

For more information, please read the article below, written by Dr. Tanner and originally published in AATCC Review, covering antimicrobial textiles as well as some implications. It is posted here with written permission from the publisher. Click the preview below to read the antimicrobial fabrics article (.pdf) Thanks for exploring Antimicrobial...

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How Lab-Tested Materials Keep Buildings Safe from Mold

Mold can form when tiny free-floating reproductive particles, called spores, come in contact with water and virtually any organic material. Spores that dwell for 24-48 hours under these simple conditions can become entrenched, then grow quickly into macrostructures that are visible to the naked eye. Visible mold is often...

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Mathematical Modeling of Antimicrobial Efficacy

Simple mathematical models are easy to create. Under certain circumstances they are very accurate. For example, let us consider the well known model people use to predict the velocity of an object as it falls to earth at sea level in a vacuum: velocity = 9.8 meters per second, per...

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Disinfectant and Sanitizer Testing Requirements

The summary information below was assembled by Antimicrobial Test Laboratories in early 2014. It is believed to be more current (as of publication) than EPA's own 810 series of guidance documents. Product testing requirements change over time, so please check with EPA or a good consultant to verify the accuracy of these...

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Introduction to Antimicrobial Devices

Got microbes? If you want to inactivate them and they reside on an environmental surface, here are the three main options: Disinfectants and sanitizers - most commonly used to destroy microorganisms on environmental surfaces, but some may suffer from various drawbacks. More information about disinfectants and sanitizers here. Antimicrobial surfaces or...

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What are Bacterial Endospores?

Bacteria propagate when times are good. When times are bad, certain bacteria have the capability to shrink down and encrust critical cellular elements in a tough casing. This is called an endospore.***The process works like this: The, bacterium senses environmental stress, which triggers activation of genes which create a...

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Scientific Notation and Significant Digits in Microbiology

The following is the formula for scientific notation: A x 10B Where A is any number reduced to its significant digits, and B is any integer. Note: This notation is also sometimes expressed as AE(±)B, as often is the case with calculators (e.g., 1E+9). To exemplify the use of scientific notation, take the...

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R-Water Success Story

R-Water's popular disinfectant, TK60, and powerful cleaner, FC+, have a unique chemistry that is produced on site and ready to use in minutes. Both their disinfectant and cleaner are conveniently made in one of their ready-to-use machines, the TC-RU and the TC-230, and utilizes the chemistry of electrolyzed water....

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Trends In High-Level Disinfectants

Where Can the Historical and New Data Sets be Found? FDA has two posted data sets, 2009 and 2015. The 2009 data set is found here and the 2015 data set is found here.   What Changed Between 2009 and 2015? Between 2009 and 2015, six new high-level disinfectants were added to FDA's...

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Regulation of Hard Surface Disinfectants by EPA

In the United States, disinfectants and sanitizers intended for use on environmental surfaces must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA regulates disinfectants as "antimicrobial pesticides," via the Antimicrobial Division, within the Office of Pesticide Programs. Jennifer McLain currently serves as director. EPA's Antimicrobial Division maintains a...

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Explanation of the FDA Re-Use Test for High-Level Disinfectants

Many High Level Disinfectants (HLDs) are intended to be re-used, meaning that the same fluid disinfects several critical or semi-critical medical instruments each day for weeks.  Accordingly, FDA requires re-usable products to be “stressed” to worst-case conditions prior to efficacy testing. The re-use test is a critical part of any...

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Introduction to EPA Antimicrobial Device Regulation

The EPA rules that apply to antimicrobial products vary by type.  Antimicrobial product types include bacteristats, fungistats, disinfectants, virucides, fungicides, antimicrobial devices, and treated articles.  Of those groups, one of the most broad, innovative, and commercially active is antimicrobial devices, which are also known as antimicrobial pesticidal devices. The antimicrobial...

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Introduction to Materials Compatibility Testing

Active ingredients, surfactants and solvents present in household and medical disinfectants can damage surfaces and textiles over the course of time. For example, bleach destroys pigments present in certain textiles and acidic household disinfectants can corrode metals or dissolve unsealed granite. When a disinfectant is incompatible with the substrate to...

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EPA Lower Certified Limit Testing Requirement

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently updated guidelines for antimicrobial efficacy testing. Formerly, EPA required the main tests for disinfection to be performed on several batches of product, with at least one batch aged for a minimum of 60 days.  The new guidelines do not change the...

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Introduction to High Level Disinfectant Testing

High-Level Disinfectants (HLDs) are used in healthcare to kill microorganisms on medical devices such as endoscopes, ultrasonic probes, and cardiac catheters, in order to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases.  HLDs are often formulated with aldehydes, peroxides, and peracetic acid.  All HLDs are heavily regulated by FDA. The photo below...

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