Coxsackieviruses, along with the polioviruses, echoviruses, and human enteroviruses, are members of the genus Enterovirus.


The polioviruses are the most well-known members of the genus Enterovirus, which also includes the echoviruses and Coxsackieviruses.


Two strains of human coronavirus, 229E and OC43, are known to cause approximately 25% of colds that exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by the rhinoviruses.


Rhinoviruses are the causative agents of approximately half of all human common colds, with almost officially recognized 100 serotypes (9).

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory disease in people of all ages.

Hepatitis A Virus

Hepatitis A virus is one of the five major hepatitis viruses, along with B, C, D, and E.

Human Herpesvirus II

Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - also referred to as human herpes virus-2 (HHV-2) – is the primary cause of genital ulcers in the industrialized world (1).

Human Herpesvirus I

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - also referred to as human herpes virus-1 (HHV-1) - infects the facial area...

Canine Parvovirus

Canine parvoviruses (CPV-2a or CPV-2b) are highly contagious, and have been implicated as a primary source of acute disease in dogs since the late 1970’s