Anaerobe

Staphylococcus hominis

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY S.hominisis a facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci generally found on human and animal skin, typically preferring more moist areas such as the axillae and pubic regions. S. hominis produces thioalcohol compounds, which contribute to body odor. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE Though usually a harmless commensal microorganism, S. hominis can cause illness...

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Klebsiella oxytoca

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY K. oxytoca is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacterium with a bi-membrane structure. Unlike its relative K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca is indole-positive (ability to convert tryptophan into indole) and can perform lactose fermentation for metabolism. It is a naturally occurring bacterium in soil, and some strains can...

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Streptococcus mutans

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive, spherical, facultatively anaerobic bacterium found in the human oral cavity. This microorganism thrives in acidic environments and is known to form biofilms. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE S. mutans is commonly associated with oral disease and tooth decay. By metabolizing sucrose to lactic acid, S. mutans...

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Shigella sonnei

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Shigella sonnei is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonmotile, non-spore-forming bacterium and has historically been responsible for causing dysentery. S. sonnei is highly clonal (genetically identical cells), and a selective group of lineages is found worldwide. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE S. sonnei causes the disease shigellosis, an intestinal infection that is spread...

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Haemophilus influenzae

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary (intermediate shape between cocci and bacilli), facultative anaerobic pathogenic bacterium. H. influenzae is capnophilic, meaning it thrives in environments with high levels of carbon dioxide. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE While H. influenzae was believed to cause of influenza until 1933, this species of bacteria...

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Bacteroides fragilis

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Bacteroides fragilis is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium found in the human colon. B. fragilis is an aerotolerant anaerobic bacteria, which allows it to survive in environments with low levels of oxygen. Maintaining a generally beneficial relationship with the host when retained in the gut, B. fragilis...

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY P. aeruginosais a gram-negative, rod-shaped, strict anaerobe that is ubiquitous in the environment as it is found in humans, animals, and plants as well as soil and water. It is capable of surviving in low oxygen environments provided the right conditions and is known to form persistent...

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Pluralibacter gergoviae

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY P. gergoviaeis a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobe that can be found in some plants, insects, and spring water. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE It is considered an uncommon human pathogen associated with nosocomial infections in immunocompromised individuals. Risk factors include long hospital stays, use of steroids or antimicrobial agents, foreign devices,...

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Lactobacillus acidophilus

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Lactobacillus acidophilus is a short Gram-positive rod that is homofermentative. This species grows in low pH, and anaerobic conditions and undergoes fermentation only. They lack cytochromes, porphyrins, and respiratory enzymes making them unable to undergo oxidative phosphorylation or respiration. To undergo fermentation, they need a sufficient supply...

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Clostridium septicum

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Clostridium septicum is a large, motile, Gram-positive, anaerobic bacillus found in the normal gut flora of humans and other animals. Clostridium septicum is a motile, spore-forming pathogen commonly isolated from the intestinal flora of humans TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE Clostridium septicum is more virulent than Clostridium perfringens and can cause...

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Clostridium difficile

Clostridium difficile

Structure and Physiology This bacteria is a Gram-positive, rod shaped, endospore generating obligate anaerobe. Clostridium species are part of the normal human gut flora that produce spores which are highly resistant to chemical and environmental conditions. Transmission and Disease C. difficile is commonly associated with hospital acquired infections and is known to...

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Propionibacterium acnes

Propionibacterium acnes

Structure and Physiology This bacteria is a Gram-positive, rod shaped, aerotolerant anaerobe. Slow growing and aerotolerant, this microorganism is part of the normal flora of healthy human skin, living deep inside pores and follicles.  Transmission and Disease Excess sebum (oil) production due to overactive sebaceous glands or blockage of a follicle can...

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