Antibiotic Resistant

Shigella sonnei

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Shigella sonnei is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonmotile, non-spore-forming bacterium and has historically been responsible for causing dysentery. S. sonnei is highly clonal (genetically identical cells), and a selective group of lineages is found worldwide. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE S. sonnei causes the disease shigellosis, an intestinal infection that is spread...

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Porphyromonas gingivalis

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium found in the human oral cavity. It is able to bind to host cells as well as with other bacteria to form a biofilm. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE P. gingivalis secretes various potential virulence factors such as proteins that cause damage to...

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Stachybotrys chartarum

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Stachybotrys chartarum is a slow-growing but hardy mold that is most often found in cellulose-rich building materials in damp or water-damaged buildings. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE The spores of Stachybotrys chartarum are only released when the mold is mechanically disturbed, especially when wet. Health problems related to this mold have...

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Staphylococcus haemolyticus

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a Gram-positive, coagulase-negative facultative anaerobe. Cells are typically coccus-shaped. Colonies are circular, raised, smooth with smooth margins, and white in color. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE Staphylococcus haemolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen causing localized or systemic infections. Infections of Staphylococcus haemolyticus are often associated with the insertion of...

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Acinetobacter baumannii

Acinetobacter baumannii

Structure and Phisiology This bacteria is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped aerobe. A. baumannii can be responsible for infections such as pneumonia and septicemia in immunodeficient patients. The natural reservoir of this organism remains to be determined. These are among a class of bacteria that are "naturally transformable" - meaning that the...

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Enterobacter aerogenes

Enterobacter aerogenes

Structure and Physiology This bacteria is Gram-negative, rod-shaped, and radially surrounded by flagellum. It can be found in dairy products, soil, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals. E. aerogenes is closely related to a wide range of other common microorganisms including Escherichia, Klebsiella, Shigella, and Serratia.    Transmission and Disease This bacteria can be involved in...

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Enterobacter cloacae

Enterobacter cloacae

Structure and Physiology This bacteria is a Gram-negative, rod shaped, facultative anaerobe commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. It is not usually a primary pathogen although it is sometimes associated with urinary and respiratory tract infection. Transmission and Disease Enterobacter cloacae can be acquired through the skin, urinary tract, or gastrointestinal...

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Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE)

Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE)

Structure and Physiology This bacteria is a Gram-positive, cocci-shaped, facultative anaerobe which is resistant to the penicillin-derivative antibiotic methicillin. S. epidermidis is part of normal human bacterial flora and is mostly located on skin. Transmission and Disease  It is an opportunistic and pathogenic; infections caused by this bacteria can be very difficult...

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Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Structure and PhysiologyMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a Gram-positive, coccal-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium that is responsible for many difficult to treat infections. MRSA is any strain of Staphylococcus aureus that has developed a resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics through the process of natural selection. Beta-lactam antibiotics include penicillin, methicillin, dicloxacillin,...

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Enterococcus faecalis (VRE)

Enterococcus faecalis (VRE)

Structure and PhysiologyEnterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, nonmotile, facultative anaerobic microbe.  Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) are strains that are resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin. There are six different types of vancomycin resistance shown by Enterococcus: Van-A, Van-B, Van-C, Van-D, Van-D, Van-E, Van-F. Van-A, Van-B, Van-C have been tested in...

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