Enveloped

Vaccinia Virus

Virus Vaccinia virus Structure Enveloped Genome Double-stranded RNA virus Family Poxviridae Primary Host Human and Bovine Disease(s) Caused Smallpox Symptoms Pustular skin rash, Fever, Body Aches Potential Complications Suppressed Immune System Transmission Mode Contact with body fluid, in rare cases, may be spread through the air Sites of Community Outbreaks Dairy farms, particularly those in South America Importance of Vaccinia Virus Vaccinia virus is a highly attenuated version of the...

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Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED)

Virus Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (Coronavirus) Structure Enveloped Genome Single-stranded RNA virus Family Coronaviridae Primary Host Pig Disease(s) Caused Porcine epidemic diarrhea Symptoms Diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration Potential Complications Death of newborn piglets Transmission Mode Oral contact with contaminated Feces Sites of Community Outbreaks Farm, pig collection points, slaughter facilities, transportation vehicles   IMPORTANCE OF PORCINE EPIDEMIC DIARRHEA VIRUS Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) virus is an enveloped member of the genus Alphacoronavirus...

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Human Parainfluenza Virus

Virus: Human Parainfluenza Virus Structure: Enveloped Genome: Single-stranded negative sense RNA Family: Paramyxoviridae Primary Host: Humans Disease(s) Caused: Croup, Bronchitis, Bronchiolitis, Pneumonia Symptoms: Sore throat, Wheezing, Irritability, Sneezing, Ear pain, Decreased appetite Potential Complications: Secondary Bacterial Infections Transmission Mode: Contact with aerosols, contact with contaminated fomites Sites of Community Outbreaks: Schools, Hospitals, Play areas Importance of Parainfluenza Virus Human Parainfluenza...

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Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

Porcine Reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, North American strain, USDA 2PDV1801 (PRRSV-2) Structure: Enveloped RNA Virus Genome: Single-stranded positive sense RNA Virus Family: Arterivirdae Primary Host: Pigs of all ages Disease caused: Pneumonia, hypoxia Potential complications: High Fever, abortions, early farrowing, fetal death Transmission Mode: close contact or by exposure to contaminated body fluids Sites of Community...

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Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus

Structure: Enveloped Virus Genome: Double-Stranded DNA Family: Herpesviridae Primary Host: Cattle of all ages Disease caused: Conjunctivitis, inappetence, dyspnea, vulvovaginitis in females, and balanoposthitis in males Potential complications: Respiratory Infections, coughing, poor milk yield, swollen eyelids Transmission Mode: Inhalation Sites of Community Outbreaks: Endemic in the United Kingdom with ~40% of cattle exposed to the virus...

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Human Herpesvirus I

Human Herpesvirus I

StructureEnvelopedFamilyHerpesviridaeDisease(s) CausedCold sores on the face and/or lips; can also be contracted genitallySymptomsBurning or tingling sensation preceding appearance of blisters: prodromePotential ComplicationsHerpes simplex encephalitis (newborns); Ocular herpes; GingivostomatitisTransmission ModePerson-to-person via transmission of infected skin cells, fluid containing the virus from ruptured blisters.Natural ReservoirsHumansSelect Outbreak SitesHospital Wards; Schools, HomesImportance of...

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Human Herpesvirus II

Human Herpesvirus II

StructureEnvelopedFamilyHerpesviridaeDisease(s) CausedBlisters and redness on the genitalia; can also be contracted orallySymptomsBurning or tingling sensation preceding appearance of blisters: prodrome; Fever, headaches (primary HSV-2 infection)Potential ComplicationsHerpes simplex encephalitis (newborns); Herpes simplex 2-associated neurological diseaseTransmission ModePerson-to-person via intimate contact with mucousal linings of the mouth, vagina, and/or genital skinNatural ReservoirsHumansHigh...

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Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

VirusHuman Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)StructureEnvelopedFamilyParamyxoviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedRespiratory diseaseSymptomsRunny nose, Coughing, Sneezing, FeverWheezingPotential ComplicationsBronchiolitis, PneumoniaTransmission ModeAirborne via respiratory droplets produced by coughing and sneezing, potential for indirect transmission via fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksHospital wards, Daycare centers, Schools, Hospital wards, Nursing HomesImportance of RSVHuman respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory disease...

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Coronavirus

Coronavirus

VirusCoronavirusStructureEnvelopedFamilyCoronaviridaeHost(s)HumansDisease(s) CausedMild to severe respiratory illnessSymptomsCough, runny/stuffy nose, fever, sore throat, headache, diarrheaPotential ComplicationsPneumonia, deathTransmission ModeClose person-to-person contact, contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, hospitals, daycare centersImportance of CoronavirusesTwo strains of human coronavirus, 229E and OC43, are known to cause approximately 25% of colds that exhibit symptoms similar to those...

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Influenza A Virus

Influenza A Virus

Structure Enveloped Family Orthomyxoviridae Disease(s) Caused Mild to severe respiratory illness Symptoms Fever, headache, cough, stuffy/runny nose, sore throat, muscle aches, exhaustion Potential Complications Bronchitis, sinus/ear infections, pneumonia Transmission Mode Largely airborne via respiratory droplets produced by coughing and sneezing, potential for indirect transmission by fomites Natural Reservoirs Birds, humans, swine Well-Known Outbreak Strains Spanish Flu (H1N1), 1918 Asian Flu (H2N2), 1957 Hong Kong Flu (H3N2),...

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Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

VirusVesicular Stomatitis VirusStructureEnvelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, negative senseFamilyRhabdoviridaePrimary HostHorses and cattleDisease(s) CausedVesicular stomatitisSymptomsExcessive salivation, oral and teat lesions, lamenessPotential ComplicationsSecondary bacterial infections, weight lossTransmission ModeInsects, contact with with infected animals, contact with contaminated feed/waterSites of Community OutbreaksFarms, ranchesImportance of Vesicular Stomatitis VirusVesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) is an enveloped member...

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Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Hepatitis C Virus

Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Hepatitis C Virus

VirusBovine Viral Diarrhea VirusVirusHepatitis C VirusStructureEnvelopedStructureEnvelopedFamilyFlaviviridaeFamilyFlaviviridaePrimary HostCattlePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedBovine Viral DiarrheaDisease(s) CausedHepatitis CSymptomsFever, lethargy, loss of appetite, oral lesions, diarrhea, decreased milk productionSymptomsFatigue, nausea, muscle achesPotential ComplicationsSecondary bacterial infectionsPotential ComplicationsLiver cirrhosis, liver cancerTransmission ModeIn utero, contact with secretions from persistently infected animalsTransmission ModeBlood-borneSites of Community OutbreaksFarms,...

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Canine Distemper Virus

Canine Distemper Virus

VirusCanine Distemper VirusStructureEnvelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNAFamilyParamyxoviridaePrimary HostDogsDisease(s) CausedDistemper, hardpad diseaseSymptomsDischarge from eyes, fever, coughing, lethargy, vomiting, seizingPotential ComplicationsNervous system damageTransmission ModeInhalation of aerosols, shared food/water bowlsSites of Community OutbreaksKennels, sheltersImportance of Canine Distemper VirusCanine distemper virus (CDV) is an enveloped member of the Paramyxoviridae family, closely related to the...

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Influenza B

Influenza B

VirusInfluenza BStructureEnvelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, negative senseFamilyOrthomyxoviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedInfluenzaSymptomsFever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle aches, lethargyPotential ComplicationsPneumonia, worsened heart conditionsTransmission ModeDirect contact with infected mucus, inhalation of aerosols, contact with contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, hospitals, workplacesImportance of Influenza B VirusThe Influenza B virus is an enveloped member of...

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Human Herpesvirus 5 (Cytomegalovirus)

Human Herpesvirus 5 (Cytomegalovirus)

VirusHerpesvirus 5 (Cytomegalovirus)StructureEnvelopedGenomeDouble stranded DNAFamilyHerpesviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedMononucleosis-like illness in immunocompromised individualsSymptomsfever, hepatitis, sore throatPotential ComplicationsIn infants: hearing loss, vision loss, mental disability, seizuresTransmission ModeIn utero, contact with bodily fluids from an infected personSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, daycaresImportance of Human Herpesvirus 5 (Cytomegalovirus)Human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5), also known as...

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Equine Herpesvirus 1

Equine Herpesvirus 1

VirusEquine Herpesvirus 1StructureEnvelopedGenomeDouble stranded DNAFamilyHerpesviridaePrimary HostHorsesDisease(s) CausedEquine rhinitisSymptomsRespiratory illness, abortionPotential ComplicationsEncephalomyelitisTransmission ModeContact with infected secretions, aerosolsSites of Community OutbreaksStables, ranchesImportance of Equine Herpesvirus 1Equine Herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is an enveloped member of the Herpesviridae family. EHV-1 affects horses and is highly prevalent in horse populations worldwide. It is...

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Measles Virus

Measles Virus

VirusMeasles VirusStructureEnvelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, negative senseFamilyParamyxoviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedMeaslesSymptomsFour-day fevers, cough, head cold, fever, sneezing, conjuctivitis, rashPotential ComplicationsDiarrhea, pneumonia, brain inflammation, blindnessTransmission ModeContact with infected secretions, close personal contact with infected personSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, daycares, churchesImportance of Measles VirusMeasles virus is an enveloped member of the Paramyxoviridae family....

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Canine Parainfluenza Virus

Canine Parainfluenza Virus

VirusCanine Parainfluenza VirusStructureEnvelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, negative senseFamilyParamyxoviridaePrimary HostDogsDisease(s) CausedKennel coughSymptomsRespiratory illness, dry coughPotential ComplicationsPneumoniaTransmission ModeContact with infected secretions, aerosolsSites of Community OutbreaksKennels, sheltersImportance of Canine Parainfluenza VirusCanine parainfluenza virus is an enveloped virus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. First reported in the late 1960s in laboratory dogs, it...

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