Gram-Positive

Staphylococcus hominis

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY S.hominisis a facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci generally found on human and animal skin, typically preferring more moist areas such as the axillae and pubic regions. S. hominis produces thioalcohol compounds, which contribute to body odor. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE Though usually a harmless commensal microorganism, S. hominis can cause illness...

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Micrococcus yunnanensis

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY M. yunnanensis is a Gram-positive, aerobic, non-endospore forming cocci. This nonmotile bacterium is found in the roots of the plant, Polyspora axillaris. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE M. yunnanensis is not generally a pathogenic microorganism and has only been noted as an opportunistic pathogen with immunocompromised people. DISINFECTION As a non-spore-forming bacterium, M....

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Gardnerella vaginalis

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Gardnerella vaginalis is a non-spore-forming, coccobacillary (intermediate shape between cocci and bacilli), non-motile bacterium. This microorganism possesses a very thin Gram-positive wall that can appear as either Gram-positive or Gram-negative when stained. G. vaginalis is a facultative anaerobe and is often found to proliferate with other anaerobic...

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Streptococcus mutans

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive, spherical, facultatively anaerobic bacterium found in the human oral cavity. This microorganism thrives in acidic environments and is known to form biofilms. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE S. mutans is commonly associated with oral disease and tooth decay. By metabolizing sucrose to lactic acid, S. mutans...

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Staphylococcus saprophyticus

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY S. saprophyticus is a gram-positive, coccoid, coagulase-negative, non-hemolytic bacteria that is commonly a part of the human microflora in the perineum, rectum, urethra, cervix, and gastrointestinal tract. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE Other than E. coli, S. saprophyticus is one of the most common causative agents in uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections...

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Staphylococcus intermedius

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY S. intermedius is a gram-positive, coccoid, coagulase-positive bacteria that is commonly found as part of the skin and mucosal microflora of many different animals such as dogs, cats, and pigeons. It has been commonly misidentified as S. aureus in the past due to its nature as coagulase-positive. TRANSMISSION...

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Deinococcus radiodurans

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Deinococcus radiodurans is a Gram-positive, non-sporulating, aerobic, cocci-shaped bacterium. To the naked eye, it often has a red or pink pigment. Under a microscope, it forms visible tetrads (groups of four cells). TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE This microorganism has not been shown to cause disease in humans. UNIQUE OR INTERESTING FACT D....

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Geobacillus stearothermophilus

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Geobacillus stearothermophilus is a thermophilic, aerobic bacterium that can form biofilms and heat-resistant spores. Gram stains as Gram-positive rods. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE There is no public health-related significance. However, due to its thermophilic nature, this organism can be found in dairy plants and can form biofilms on stainless steel...

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Lactobacillus acidophilus

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Lactobacillus acidophilus is a short Gram-positive rod that is homofermentative. This species grows in low pH, and anaerobic conditions and undergoes fermentation only. They lack cytochromes, porphyrins, and respiratory enzymes making them unable to undergo oxidative phosphorylation or respiration. To undergo fermentation, they need a sufficient supply...

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Clostridium septicum

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Clostridium septicum is a large, motile, Gram-positive, anaerobic bacillus found in the normal gut flora of humans and other animals. Clostridium septicum is a motile, spore-forming pathogen commonly isolated from the intestinal flora of humans TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE Clostridium septicum is more virulent than Clostridium perfringens and can cause...

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Dekkera bruxellensis

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Dekkera bruxellensis is a facultative anaerobe with a low growth rate. Cream-colored, dull and rough looking colonies have been observed on malt extract agar. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE Dekkera bruxellensis is often spread through wine production facilities by contaminated equipment or by fruit flies. Dekkera bruxellensis occurs in fermented foods....

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Mycobacterium chimera

STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY Mycobacterium chimera is classified as a non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium that is a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). As a member of MAC, Mycobacterium chimera is characterized as gram-positive, non-motile, and acid-fast-positive bacteria. TRANSMISSION AND DISEASE Mycobacterium chimera is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for respiratory infection mainly in immunocompromised...

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Clostridium difficile

Clostridium difficile

Structure and Physiology This bacteria is a Gram-positive, rod shaped, endospore generating obligate anaerobe. Clostridium species are part of the normal human gut flora that produce spores which are highly resistant to chemical and environmental conditions. Transmission and Disease C. difficile is commonly associated with hospital acquired infections and is known to...

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Corynebacterium xerosis

Corynebacterium xerosis

Structure and PhysiologyThis bacteria is a Gram positive, rod shaped aerobe. C. xerosis is referred to as a diptheriod because of its relation to C. diptheriae, the bacterium which causes diptheria.Transmission and DiseaseMostly inocuous, C. xerosis is commonly found on human skin and has been known to cause opportunistic...

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Mycobacterium terrae

Structure and Physiology Mycobacterium terrae is an aerobic, nonmotile, rod shaped, acid-fast Gram-positive bacterium.  A distinguishing characteristic of mycobacterium is that the cell wall is thicker than many other bacterium. M. terrae is a slow growing species of Mycobacterium and is sometimes referred to as the “radish bacillus” because it...

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Bacillus subtilis

Bacillus subtilis

Structure and Physiology Bacillus subtilis is a spore forming, motile, rod-shaped, Gram-positive, facultative aerobe. It is mostly found in soil and vegetation with an optimal growth temperature from 25-35 degrees Celsius. B. subtilis has the ability to produce and secrete antibiotics. The genomic structure of this microorganism contains five signal...

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Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus

Structure and PhysiologyStaphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, coccal-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium. During binary fission, the two daughter cells that are produced do not completely separate. Incomplete separations of the cells result in the cluster formation. S. aureus is a catalase-positive bacterium that is able to combat the electronegative oxidizing...

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Listeria monocytogenes

Listeria monocytogenes

Structure and PhysiologyListeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, facultative anaerobic bacterium that has the ability to survive with or without oxygen. Contrary to most non-spore forming bacterium, L. monocytogenes can survive the effects of freezing, drying, high pH, and high temperatures. It has the ability to grow at...

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Bacillus cereus

Bacillus cereus

Structure and PhysiologyBacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endopore-forming facultative aerobe bacterium related to Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis.Transmission and DiseaseAlthough B. cereus is commonly associated with food-borne illnesses, this microbe can also be responsible for several local and systemic infections.DisinfectionDue to this bacterium's ability to sporulate, B. cereus...

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Streptococcus pyogenes

Streptococcus pyogenes

Structure and PhysiologyStreptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive, spherical, and facultative anaerobic bacterium. Similar in cellular morphology to Staphylococcus species, this species of bacteria grows in long chains versus the grape-like clusters observed as Staphylococcus. Known as the flesh eating bacteria, S. pyogenes is the most pathogenic bacterium in the...

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Enterococcus faecium

Structure and Physiology Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive, coccal shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium that can occur in pairs or chains. Its natural habitat includes the gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity, and vaginal tract of a wide variety of animals. The colonies that are produced appear wet and have an average size...

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Structure and PhysiologyThis bacteria is Gram-positive, aerotolerant, and spherical-shaped. S. pneumonia is part of the normally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract.Transmission and DiseaseS. pneumoniae can be responsible for numerous infections including pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis.DisinfectionS. pneumoniae has exhibited susceptibility to several antimicrobial products and is moderately easy...

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Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE)

Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE)

Structure and Physiology This bacteria is a Gram-positive, cocci-shaped, facultative anaerobe which is resistant to the penicillin-derivative antibiotic methicillin. S. epidermidis is part of normal human bacterial flora and is mostly located on skin. Transmission and Disease  It is an opportunistic and pathogenic; infections caused by this bacteria can be very difficult...

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Staphylococcus epidermidis

Staphylococcus epidermidis

Structure and PhysiologyThis bacteria is a Gram-positive, cocci-shaped, facultative anaerobe. S. epidermidis is part of the human bacterial flora, mostly located on skin.Transmission and DiseaseIt is not usually pathogenic; however, antibiotic resistant strains have evolved.DisinfectionMost Staphylococcus species are a hardy microorganisms capable of surviving on surfaces and under dry...

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Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Structure and PhysiologyMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a Gram-positive, coccal-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium that is responsible for many difficult to treat infections. MRSA is any strain of Staphylococcus aureus that has developed a resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics through the process of natural selection. Beta-lactam antibiotics include penicillin, methicillin, dicloxacillin,...

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Enterococcus faecalis (VRE)

Enterococcus faecalis (VRE)

Structure and PhysiologyEnterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, nonmotile, facultative anaerobic microbe.  Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) are strains that are resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin. There are six different types of vancomycin resistance shown by Enterococcus: Van-A, Van-B, Van-C, Van-D, Van-D, Van-E, Van-F. Van-A, Van-B, Van-C have been tested in...

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Propionibacterium acnes

Propionibacterium acnes

Structure and Physiology This bacteria is a Gram-positive, rod shaped, aerotolerant anaerobe. Slow growing and aerotolerant, this microorganism is part of the normal flora of healthy human skin, living deep inside pores and follicles.  Transmission and Disease Excess sebum (oil) production due to overactive sebaceous glands or blockage of a follicle can...

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M. smegmatis

Mycobacterium smegmatis

Structure and Physiology This bacteria is an acid-fast, bacillus-shaped, aerobic microorganism that is commonly used a surrogate model for M. tuberculosis and is found in soil, plants, and water. Transmission and Disease M. smegmatis is non-pathogenic to humans except in rare cases, and is considered saprophytic. Unlike other pathogenic Mycobacterium, M. smegmatis isn't...

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Streptococcus sobrinus

Streptococcus sobrinus

Structure and PhysiologyThis bacteria is a Gram-positive, sphere-shaped, anaerobic microorganism that is pathogenic within humans.Transmission and DiseaseFound in the human mouth in the form of biofilm and plaque, S. sobrinus thrives in the slightly acidic environment of the oral cavity because it metabolizes food sugars passing through the mouth....

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Micrococcus luteus

Micrococcus luteus

Structure and PhysiologyThis bacteria is Gram-positive, spherical, and an obligate aerobe. M. luteus is part of the normal flora of the human skin.Transmission and DiseaseM. luteus is rarely found to be responsible for infections. Only those with compromised immune systems are thought to be susceptible to an infection.DisinfectionM. luteus...

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