Non-Enveloped

Hepatitis A Virus

Hepatitis A Virus

Virus Hepatitis A Virus Structure Non-enveloped Family Picornaviridae Host(s) Humans Disease(s) Caused Acute liver disease Symptoms Juandice, nausea, fever, lethargy, abdominal pain Potential Complications Acute liver failure Transmission Mode Fecal-Oral: Person-to-person contact; foodborne; waterborne; contaminated fomites Sites of Community Outbreaks Daycare centers; restaurants Importance of Hepatitis A Virus Hepatitis A virus is one of the five major hepatitis viruses, along with B, C, D, and E. Hepatitis viruses...

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Rhinovirus

Rhinovirus

VirusRhinovirusStructureNon-envelopedFamilyPicornaviridaeHost(s)HumansDisease(s) CausedCommon coldSymptomsRunny nose, sore throat, nasal congestion, cough, headachePotential ComplicationsSecondary bacterial infections (sinusitis, ear infection, etc)Transmission ModeInhalation of aerosols, contact with contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, hospitals, daycare centers, nursing homesImportance of the RhinovirusesRhinoviruses are the causative agents of approximately half of all human common colds, with almost...

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Poliovirus

Poliovirus

VirusPoliovirusStructureNon-envelopedFamilyPicornaviridaeHost(s)HumansDisease(s) CausedSeveral manifestations, ranging from mild to life-threateningSymptomsFever, headache, stiffness/pain in the back or neck, muscle spasms/tendernessPotential ComplicationsAcute poliomyelitis: Flaccid paralysis, loss of reflexes Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome (PPS): Reoccurence of symptoms years after stabilization of acute symptomsTransmission ModeClose person-to-person contact, contaminated fomitesFecal-oral, person-to-person contact, water, contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksSewage-contaminated...

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Canine Parvovirus

Canine Parvovirus

VirusCanine parvovirusStructureNon-envelopedFamilyParvoviridaePrimary HostDogsDisease(s) CausedIntestinal disease, Congestive heart failure (Puppies)SymptomsVomiting, Bloody diarrhea, Lethargy, DehydrationPotential ComplicationsIntestinal form: Sepsis,Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Bacterial myocarditisCardiac form: DeathTransmission ModeIntestinal form: Fecal-oral  Cardiac form: In utero, Fecal-oralSites of Community OutbreaksKennels, Animal shelters, Pet storesImportance of Canine ParvovirusCanine parvoviruses (CPV-2a or CPV-2b) are highly contagious, and have...

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Coxsackieviruses

Coxsackieviruses

VirusCoxsackievirus A, Coxsackievirus BStructureNon-envelopedFamilyPicornaviridaeHost(s)HumansDisease(s) CausedDependent on infection by group A or BSymptomsFever, rash, headachePotential ComplicationsGroup A: Aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, paralysis, hand, foot and mouth diseaseGroup B: Aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, paralysis, myocarditis, pneumoniaTransmission ModeFecal-Oral: Person-to-person contact; waterborne; contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksDaycare centers, restaurantsImportance of Coxsackieviruses A and BCoxsackieviruses, along...

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Echovirus

Echovirus

VirusEchovirusStructureNon-envelopedFamilyPicornaviridaeHost(s)HumansDisease(s) CausedSeveral manifestations, ranging from mild to life-threateningSymptomsSkin rashes, upper respiratory distress, sore throat, mouth soresPotential ComplicationsSevere neonatal disease, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis myocarditis, pericarditisTransmission ModeFecal-oral, person-to-person contact, water, contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, hospitals, daycare centersImportance of EchovirusesEnteric cytopathic human orphan viruses, known in short as echoviruses, belong to...

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Norovirus

Norovirus

VirusHuman norovirusFeline calicivirus (U.S.-EPA human norovirus surrogate)StructureNon-envelopedNon-envelopedFamilyCaliciviridaeCaliciviridaeHost(s)HumansCatsDisease(s) CausedAcute gastroenteritisRespiratory illness, pneumonia, feverSymptomsNausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal crampingRunny nose/eyes, sneezing, fever, mouth ulcersPotential ComplicationsSevere dehydrationPneumonia, lamenessTransmission ModeEnvironmental:waterborne, foodbornePerson-to-Person:fecal/vomitus-oralFomite: contaminated surfacesCat-to-cat contact: eye/nasal/mouth fluids   Fomite transmission: food/water bowlsSites of Community Outbreaks*Cruise shipsRestaurants/Catered eventsRecreational sitesHospitalsNursing homesSchools/Daycare centersAnimal sheltersPet stores Veterinary clinics Importance of Human NorovirusHuman noroviruses are a...

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Enterovirus 71

Enterovirus 71

VirusEnterovirus 71StructureNon-envelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, positive senseFamilyPicornaviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedHand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, meningitisSymptomsHand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: fever, rash, loss of appetite, ulcers/blisters on mouth, hands, feetMeningitis: fever, stiff neck, rash, vomiting, seizures, weaknessPotential ComplicationsParalysisTransmission ModeFecal-oralSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, daycares, hospitals, workplaceImportance of Enterovirus 71Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is...

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Enterovirus 68

Enterovirus 68

VirusEnterovirus 68StructureNon-envelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, positive senseFamilyPicornaviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedRespiratory illnessSymptomsRunny nose, sore throat, cough, fever, skin rashPotential ComplicationsParalysisTransmission ModeAerosols, contact with contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, daycaresImportance of Enterovirus 68Enterovirus 68 is a non-enveloped member of the Picornaviridae family. First isolated in California in 1962, it has recently become...

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Minute Virus of Mice

Minute Virus of Mice

Virus Minute Virus of Mice Structure Non-enveloped Genomes Single stranded DNA Family Parvoviridae Primary Host Mice Disease(s) Caused None Symptoms None Potential Complications Possible organ damage if infection occurs in utero or shortly after birth, interference with research Transmission Mode Contact with nasal secretions and contaminated fomites Sites of Community Outbreaks Mouse colonies Importance of Minute Virus of Mice Minute virus of mice (MVM) is a small non-enveloped virus belonging...

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Human Rotavirus

Human Rotavirus

VirusHuman RotavirusStructureNon-envelopedGenomeDouble stranded RNAFamilyReoviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedGastroenteritisSymptomsNausea, vomiting, diarrhea, feverPotential ComplicationsSevere dehydrationTransmission ModeFecal-oral, contact with contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksHospitals, daycares, schools, nursing homesImportance of Human RotavirusHuman rotavirus is a non-enveloped member of the Reoviridae family. Seven serogroups for this virus exist. Serogroup A is responsible for the majority...

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Adenovirus

Adenovirus

Virus Adenovirus Structure Non-enveloped Genome Double stranded DNA Family Adenoviridae Primary Host Humans Disease(s) Caused Common cold, bronchitis, conjuctivitis, pneumonia Symptoms Runny nose, cough, inflamed eyes, fever Potential Complications Secondary bacterial infections Transmission Mode Contact with aerosols, contact with contaminated fomites Sites of Community Outbreaks Schools, hospitals, swimming pools Importance of Adenovirus Adenoviruses are members of the family Adenoviridae. They were initially isolated in 1953 from human adenoids,...

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Feline Calicivirus

Feline Calicivirus

VirusFeline calicivirus (US-EPA human norovirus surrogate)StructureNon-envelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, positive senseFamilyCaliciviridaePrimary HostCatsDisease(s) CausedRespiratory illness, pneumonia, feverSymptomsRunny nose/eyes, sneezing, fever, mouth ulcersPotential ComplicationsPneumonia, lamenessTransmission ModeCat-to-cat contact: eye/nasal/mouth fluids   Fomite transmission: food/water bowlsSites of Community OutbreaksAnimal sheltersPet stores Veterinary clinicsImportance of Feline CalicivirusFeline calicivirus (FCV) is a non-enveloped member of the family Caliciviridae. It...

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Bovine Rotavirus

Bovine Rotavirus

VirusBovine RotavirusStructureNon-envelopedGenomeDouble stranded RNAFamilyReoviridaePrimary HostCattleDisease(s) CausedGastroenteritis (calf scour)SymptomsDiarrhea, reluctance to eat or drinkPotential ComplicationsSevere dehydrationTransmission ModeFecal-oral, contact with contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksFarms, ranchesImportance of Bovine RotavirusBovine rotavirus is a non-enveloped member of the Reoviridae family. It is responsible for most cases of neonatal diarrhea in calves, also...

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MS2 Bacteriophage

MS2 Bacteriophage

MS2 BacteriophageMS2 Bacteriophage is a small, non-enveloped member of the family Leviviridae. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. MS2 infects Escherichia coli by binding to a 'male' F pilus on their surface. Pili are filamentous structures used by bacteria to exchange genetic material, usually in the form of plasmids....

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Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus

VirusEpizootic Hemorrhagic Disease VirusStructureNon-envelopedGenomeDouble stranded RNAFamilyReoviridaePrimary HostRuminantsDisease(s) CausedEpizootic Hemorrhagic DiseaseSymptomsHigh fever, edema of neck and head, hemorrhaging, ulcersPotential ComplicationsMalnutrition, lamenessTransmission ModeBiting midgesSites of Community OutbreaksWhite-tailed deer populationsImportance of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease VirusEpizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) is a non-enveloped member of the Reoviridae family. EHDV causes Epizootic Hemorrhagic...

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