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Pluralibacter gergoviae


P. gergoviaeis a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobe that can be found in some plants, insects, and spring water.


It is considered an uncommon human pathogen associated with nosocomial infections in immunocompromised individuals. Risk factors include long hospital stays, use of steroids or antimicrobial agents, foreign devices, or age.


More recently, P. gergoviae has been implicated in several recalls involving cosmetic products such as eye and skin creams as well as baby shampoo. This bacterium is resistant to parabens, a common antimicrobial agent in cosmetics, as well as several antibiotics.


P. gergoviae was originally classified under the Genus “Enterobacter” before being reclassified as the novel Genus “Pluralibacter”. It is now the type species for Pluralibacter.


Brenner, D. J.; Richard, C.; Steigerwalt, A. G.; Asbury, M. A.; Mandel, M. (1 January 1980). “Enterobacter gergoviae sp. nov.: a New Species of Enterobacteriaceae Found in Clinical Specimens and the Environment”. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 30 (1): 1–6.

Brady, C.; Cleenwerck, I.; Venter, S.; Coutinho, T.; De Vos, P. (1 July 2013). “Taxonomic evaluation of the genus Enterobacter based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA): Proposal to reclassify E. nimipressuralis and E. amnigenus into Lelliottia gen. nov. as Lelliottia nimipressuralis comb. nov. and Lelliottia amnigena comb. nov., respectively, E. gergoviae and E. pyrinus into Pluralibacter gen. nov. as Pluralibacter gergoviae comb. nov. and Pluralibacter pyrinus comb. nov., respectively, E. cowanii, E. radicincitans, E. oryzae and E. arachidis into Kosakonia gen. nov. as Kosakonia cowanii comb. nov., Kosakonia radicincitans comb. nov., Kosakonia oryzae comb. nov. and Kosakonia arachidis comb. nov., respectively, and E. turicensis, E. helveticus and E. pulveris into Cronobacter as Cronobacter zurichensis nom. nov., Cronobacter helveticus comb. nov. and Cronobacter pulveris comb. nov., respectively, and emended description of the genera Enterobacter and Cronobacter”. Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 36 (5): 309–319.

Davin-Regli, A.; Chollet, R.; Bredin, J.; Chevalier, J.; Lepine, F.; Pagès, J. M. (1 April 2006). “Enterobacter gergoviae and the prevalence of efflux in parabens resistance“. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 57 (4): 757–760.

Périamé, M.; Pagès, J.-M.; Davin-Regli, A. (August 2014). “Enterobacter gergoviae adaptation to preservatives commonly used in cosmetic industry”. International Journal of Cosmetic Science. 36 (4): 386–395.

Ganeswire, R.; Thong, K.L.; Puthucheary, S.D. (April 2003). “Nosocomial outbreak of Enterobacter gergoviae bacteraemia in a neonatal intensive care unit”. Journal of Hospital Infection. 53 (4): 292–296.

Neza, Edlira; Centini, Marisanna (30 January 2016). “Microbiologically Contaminated and Over-Preserved Cosmetic Products According Rapex 2008–2014”. Cosmetics. 3 (1): 3

Stock, I.; Wiedemann, B. (September 2002). “Natural antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacter amnigenus, Enterobacter cancerogenus, Enterobacter gergoviae and Enterobacter sakazakii strains”. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 8 (9): 564–578.


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