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Rhinocladiella aquaspersa


R. aquaspersa is a black yeast-like fungus that is commonly found as a conidiophore, or a sexual spore generating aerobic fungus. This fungus is closely related to other members of the order Chaetothyriales that are associated with opportunistic infections. It is more prevalent in hot, arid portions of tropical and sub-tropical regions.


R. aquaspersa has recently been found to be a causative agent of Chromoblastomycosis, a chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection characterized by warty nodules and verrucous skin lesions. Chromoblastomycosis, caused by R. aquaspersa, is more commonly found in Latin American countries.


This fungus produces spores which are difficult to eliminate via disinfection. Recent case studies have shown that treatment using solely antifungal drugs was not sufficient to cure patients suffering from infections caused by Rhinocladiella sp. Only through application of antifungal treatment and surgical intervention did patients show improvement.


The initial isolate was obtained from a patient in Mexico, and originally classified as Acrotheca aquaspersa Borelli. It was subsequently re-classified as R. aquaspersa following isolation from a patient in Brazil.


Badali, A. Bonifaz, T. Barrón-Tapia, D. Vázquez-González, L. Estrada-Aguilar, N. M. Cavalcante Oliveira, J. F. Sobral Filho, J. Guarro, J. F. G. M. Meis, G. S. De Hoog, Rhinocladiella aquaspersa, proven agent of verrucous skin infection and a novel type of chromoblastomycosis, Medical Mycology, Volume 48, Issue 5, August 2010, Pages 696–703