Virus

Vaccinia Virus

Virus Vaccinia virus Structure Enveloped Genome Double-stranded RNA virus Family Poxviridae Primary Host Human and Bovine Disease(s) Caused Smallpox Symptoms Pustular skin rash, Fever, Body Aches Potential Complications Suppressed Immune System Transmission Mode Contact with body fluid, in rare cases, may be spread through the air Sites of Community Outbreaks Dairy farms, particularly those in South America Importance of Vaccinia Virus Vaccinia virus is a highly attenuated version of the...

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Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED)

Virus Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (Coronavirus) Structure Enveloped Genome Single-stranded RNA virus Family Coronaviridae Primary Host Pig Disease(s) Caused Porcine epidemic diarrhea Symptoms Diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration Potential Complications Death of newborn piglets Transmission Mode Oral contact with contaminated Feces Sites of Community Outbreaks Farm, pig collection points, slaughter facilities, transportation vehicles   IMPORTANCE OF PORCINE EPIDEMIC DIARRHEA VIRUS Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) virus is an enveloped member of the genus Alphacoronavirus...

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Simian Vacuolating Virus 40 (SV40)

Virus Simian Vacuolating Virus 40 (SV40) Structure                                           Non-Enveloped Family Polyomaviridae Primary Host(s) Monkey/Human Disease(s) Caused Various cancers including brain and bone tumors, and malignant pleural mesotheliomas in laboratory animals. Symptoms Tumorigenesis, potentially leading to malignancy Potential Complications Immunosuppressed Individuals Transmission Mode Contact with infected body fluids, particularly contaminated blood Importance of Simian Vacuolating Virus 40 Simian Vacuolating virus 40 was originally introduced into the...

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Fowl Adenovirus 1

Virus: Fowl Adenovirus 1 Structure: Non-enveloped Genome: Double-stranded DNA Family: Adenoviridae Primary Host: Birds Diseases caused: Inclusion body hepatitis, hepatitis hydropericardium syndrome (HS), and adenoviral gizzard erosion Symptoms:  asymptomatic or may display respiratory issues, ruffled feathers, huddling, reduced egg production/low hatchability, depression, anorexia, growth delay, diarrhea, enteritis with varying degrees of mortality Potential complications: Have a...

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Human Parainfluenza Virus

Virus: Human Parainfluenza Virus Structure: Enveloped Genome: Single-stranded negative sense RNA Family: Paramyxoviridae Primary Host: Humans Disease(s) Caused: Croup, Bronchitis, Bronchiolitis, Pneumonia Symptoms: Sore throat, Wheezing, Irritability, Sneezing, Ear pain, Decreased appetite Potential Complications: Secondary Bacterial Infections Transmission Mode: Contact with aerosols, contact with contaminated fomites Sites of Community Outbreaks: Schools, Hospitals, Play areas Importance of Parainfluenza Virus Human Parainfluenza...

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Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

Porcine Reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, North American strain, USDA 2PDV1801 (PRRSV-2) Structure: Enveloped RNA Virus Genome: Single-stranded positive sense RNA Virus Family: Arterivirdae Primary Host: Pigs of all ages Disease caused: Pneumonia, hypoxia Potential complications: High Fever, abortions, early farrowing, fetal death Transmission Mode: close contact or by exposure to contaminated body fluids Sites of Community...

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Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus

Structure: Enveloped Virus Genome: Double-Stranded DNA Family: Herpesviridae Primary Host: Cattle of all ages Disease caused: Conjunctivitis, inappetence, dyspnea, vulvovaginitis in females, and balanoposthitis in males Potential complications: Respiratory Infections, coughing, poor milk yield, swollen eyelids Transmission Mode: Inhalation Sites of Community Outbreaks: Endemic in the United Kingdom with ~40% of cattle exposed to the virus...

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Human Herpesvirus I

Human Herpesvirus I

StructureEnvelopedFamilyHerpesviridaeDisease(s) CausedCold sores on the face and/or lips; can also be contracted genitallySymptomsBurning or tingling sensation preceding appearance of blisters: prodromePotential ComplicationsHerpes simplex encephalitis (newborns); Ocular herpes; GingivostomatitisTransmission ModePerson-to-person via transmission of infected skin cells, fluid containing the virus from ruptured blisters.Natural ReservoirsHumansSelect Outbreak SitesHospital Wards; Schools, HomesImportance of...

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Human Herpesvirus II

Human Herpesvirus II

StructureEnvelopedFamilyHerpesviridaeDisease(s) CausedBlisters and redness on the genitalia; can also be contracted orallySymptomsBurning or tingling sensation preceding appearance of blisters: prodrome; Fever, headaches (primary HSV-2 infection)Potential ComplicationsHerpes simplex encephalitis (newborns); Herpes simplex 2-associated neurological diseaseTransmission ModePerson-to-person via intimate contact with mucousal linings of the mouth, vagina, and/or genital skinNatural ReservoirsHumansHigh...

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Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

VirusHuman Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)StructureEnvelopedFamilyParamyxoviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedRespiratory diseaseSymptomsRunny nose, Coughing, Sneezing, FeverWheezingPotential ComplicationsBronchiolitis, PneumoniaTransmission ModeAirborne via respiratory droplets produced by coughing and sneezing, potential for indirect transmission via fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksHospital wards, Daycare centers, Schools, Hospital wards, Nursing HomesImportance of RSVHuman respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory disease...

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Hepatitis A Virus

Hepatitis A Virus

Virus Hepatitis A Virus Structure Non-enveloped Family Picornaviridae Host(s) Humans Disease(s) Caused Acute liver disease Symptoms Juandice, nausea, fever, lethargy, abdominal pain Potential Complications Acute liver failure Transmission Mode Fecal-Oral: Person-to-person contact; foodborne; waterborne; contaminated fomites Sites of Community Outbreaks Daycare centers; restaurants Importance of Hepatitis A Virus Hepatitis A virus is one of the five major hepatitis viruses, along with B, C, D, and E. Hepatitis viruses...

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Rhinovirus

Rhinovirus

VirusRhinovirusStructureNon-envelopedFamilyPicornaviridaeHost(s)HumansDisease(s) CausedCommon coldSymptomsRunny nose, sore throat, nasal congestion, cough, headachePotential ComplicationsSecondary bacterial infections (sinusitis, ear infection, etc)Transmission ModeInhalation of aerosols, contact with contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, hospitals, daycare centers, nursing homesImportance of the RhinovirusesRhinoviruses are the causative agents of approximately half of all human common colds, with almost...

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Coronavirus

Coronavirus

VirusCoronavirusStructureEnvelopedFamilyCoronaviridaeHost(s)HumansDisease(s) CausedMild to severe respiratory illnessSymptomsCough, runny/stuffy nose, fever, sore throat, headache, diarrheaPotential ComplicationsPneumonia, deathTransmission ModeClose person-to-person contact, contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, hospitals, daycare centersImportance of CoronavirusesTwo strains of human coronavirus, 229E and OC43, are known to cause approximately 25% of colds that exhibit symptoms similar to those...

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Poliovirus

Poliovirus

VirusPoliovirusStructureNon-envelopedFamilyPicornaviridaeHost(s)HumansDisease(s) CausedSeveral manifestations, ranging from mild to life-threateningSymptomsFever, headache, stiffness/pain in the back or neck, muscle spasms/tendernessPotential ComplicationsAcute poliomyelitis: Flaccid paralysis, loss of reflexes Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome (PPS): Reoccurence of symptoms years after stabilization of acute symptomsTransmission ModeClose person-to-person contact, contaminated fomitesFecal-oral, person-to-person contact, water, contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksSewage-contaminated...

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Canine Parvovirus

Canine Parvovirus

VirusCanine parvovirusStructureNon-envelopedFamilyParvoviridaePrimary HostDogsDisease(s) CausedIntestinal disease, Congestive heart failure (Puppies)SymptomsVomiting, Bloody diarrhea, Lethargy, DehydrationPotential ComplicationsIntestinal form: Sepsis,Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Bacterial myocarditisCardiac form: DeathTransmission ModeIntestinal form: Fecal-oral  Cardiac form: In utero, Fecal-oralSites of Community OutbreaksKennels, Animal shelters, Pet storesImportance of Canine ParvovirusCanine parvoviruses (CPV-2a or CPV-2b) are highly contagious, and have...

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Coxsackieviruses

Coxsackieviruses

VirusCoxsackievirus A, Coxsackievirus BStructureNon-envelopedFamilyPicornaviridaeHost(s)HumansDisease(s) CausedDependent on infection by group A or BSymptomsFever, rash, headachePotential ComplicationsGroup A: Aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, paralysis, hand, foot and mouth diseaseGroup B: Aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, paralysis, myocarditis, pneumoniaTransmission ModeFecal-Oral: Person-to-person contact; waterborne; contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksDaycare centers, restaurantsImportance of Coxsackieviruses A and BCoxsackieviruses, along...

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Echovirus

Echovirus

VirusEchovirusStructureNon-envelopedFamilyPicornaviridaeHost(s)HumansDisease(s) CausedSeveral manifestations, ranging from mild to life-threateningSymptomsSkin rashes, upper respiratory distress, sore throat, mouth soresPotential ComplicationsSevere neonatal disease, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis myocarditis, pericarditisTransmission ModeFecal-oral, person-to-person contact, water, contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, hospitals, daycare centersImportance of EchovirusesEnteric cytopathic human orphan viruses, known in short as echoviruses, belong to...

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Norovirus

Norovirus

VirusHuman norovirusFeline calicivirus (U.S.-EPA human norovirus surrogate)StructureNon-envelopedNon-envelopedFamilyCaliciviridaeCaliciviridaeHost(s)HumansCatsDisease(s) CausedAcute gastroenteritisRespiratory illness, pneumonia, feverSymptomsNausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal crampingRunny nose/eyes, sneezing, fever, mouth ulcersPotential ComplicationsSevere dehydrationPneumonia, lamenessTransmission ModeEnvironmental:waterborne, foodbornePerson-to-Person:fecal/vomitus-oralFomite: contaminated surfacesCat-to-cat contact: eye/nasal/mouth fluids   Fomite transmission: food/water bowlsSites of Community Outbreaks*Cruise shipsRestaurants/Catered eventsRecreational sitesHospitalsNursing homesSchools/Daycare centersAnimal sheltersPet stores Veterinary clinics Importance of Human NorovirusHuman noroviruses are a...

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Influenza A Virus

Influenza A Virus

Structure Enveloped Family Orthomyxoviridae Disease(s) Caused Mild to severe respiratory illness Symptoms Fever, headache, cough, stuffy/runny nose, sore throat, muscle aches, exhaustion Potential Complications Bronchitis, sinus/ear infections, pneumonia Transmission Mode Largely airborne via respiratory droplets produced by coughing and sneezing, potential for indirect transmission by fomites Natural Reservoirs Birds, humans, swine Well-Known Outbreak Strains Spanish Flu (H1N1), 1918 Asian Flu (H2N2), 1957 Hong Kong Flu (H3N2),...

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Enterovirus 71

Enterovirus 71

VirusEnterovirus 71StructureNon-envelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, positive senseFamilyPicornaviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedHand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, meningitisSymptomsHand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: fever, rash, loss of appetite, ulcers/blisters on mouth, hands, feetMeningitis: fever, stiff neck, rash, vomiting, seizures, weaknessPotential ComplicationsParalysisTransmission ModeFecal-oralSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, daycares, hospitals, workplaceImportance of Enterovirus 71Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is...

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Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

VirusVesicular Stomatitis VirusStructureEnvelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, negative senseFamilyRhabdoviridaePrimary HostHorses and cattleDisease(s) CausedVesicular stomatitisSymptomsExcessive salivation, oral and teat lesions, lamenessPotential ComplicationsSecondary bacterial infections, weight lossTransmission ModeInsects, contact with with infected animals, contact with contaminated feed/waterSites of Community OutbreaksFarms, ranchesImportance of Vesicular Stomatitis VirusVesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) is an enveloped member...

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Enterovirus 68

Enterovirus 68

VirusEnterovirus 68StructureNon-envelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, positive senseFamilyPicornaviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedRespiratory illnessSymptomsRunny nose, sore throat, cough, fever, skin rashPotential ComplicationsParalysisTransmission ModeAerosols, contact with contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, daycaresImportance of Enterovirus 68Enterovirus 68 is a non-enveloped member of the Picornaviridae family. First isolated in California in 1962, it has recently become...

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Minute Virus of Mice

Minute Virus of Mice

Virus Minute Virus of Mice Structure Non-enveloped Genomes Single stranded DNA Family Parvoviridae Primary Host Mice Disease(s) Caused None Symptoms None Potential Complications Possible organ damage if infection occurs in utero or shortly after birth, interference with research Transmission Mode Contact with nasal secretions and contaminated fomites Sites of Community Outbreaks Mouse colonies Importance of Minute Virus of Mice Minute virus of mice (MVM) is a small non-enveloped virus belonging...

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Human Rotavirus

Human Rotavirus

VirusHuman RotavirusStructureNon-envelopedGenomeDouble stranded RNAFamilyReoviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedGastroenteritisSymptomsNausea, vomiting, diarrhea, feverPotential ComplicationsSevere dehydrationTransmission ModeFecal-oral, contact with contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksHospitals, daycares, schools, nursing homesImportance of Human RotavirusHuman rotavirus is a non-enveloped member of the Reoviridae family. Seven serogroups for this virus exist. Serogroup A is responsible for the majority...

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Adenovirus

Adenovirus

Virus Adenovirus Structure Non-enveloped Genome Double stranded DNA Family Adenoviridae Primary Host Humans Disease(s) Caused Common cold, bronchitis, conjuctivitis, pneumonia Symptoms Runny nose, cough, inflamed eyes, fever Potential Complications Secondary bacterial infections Transmission Mode Contact with aerosols, contact with contaminated fomites Sites of Community Outbreaks Schools, hospitals, swimming pools Importance of Adenovirus Adenoviruses are members of the family Adenoviridae. They were initially isolated in 1953 from human adenoids,...

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Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Hepatitis C Virus

Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Hepatitis C Virus

VirusBovine Viral Diarrhea VirusVirusHepatitis C VirusStructureEnvelopedStructureEnvelopedFamilyFlaviviridaeFamilyFlaviviridaePrimary HostCattlePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedBovine Viral DiarrheaDisease(s) CausedHepatitis CSymptomsFever, lethargy, loss of appetite, oral lesions, diarrhea, decreased milk productionSymptomsFatigue, nausea, muscle achesPotential ComplicationsSecondary bacterial infectionsPotential ComplicationsLiver cirrhosis, liver cancerTransmission ModeIn utero, contact with secretions from persistently infected animalsTransmission ModeBlood-borneSites of Community OutbreaksFarms,...

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Canine Distemper Virus

Canine Distemper Virus

VirusCanine Distemper VirusStructureEnvelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNAFamilyParamyxoviridaePrimary HostDogsDisease(s) CausedDistemper, hardpad diseaseSymptomsDischarge from eyes, fever, coughing, lethargy, vomiting, seizingPotential ComplicationsNervous system damageTransmission ModeInhalation of aerosols, shared food/water bowlsSites of Community OutbreaksKennels, sheltersImportance of Canine Distemper VirusCanine distemper virus (CDV) is an enveloped member of the Paramyxoviridae family, closely related to the...

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Influenza B

Influenza B

VirusInfluenza BStructureEnvelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, negative senseFamilyOrthomyxoviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedInfluenzaSymptomsFever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle aches, lethargyPotential ComplicationsPneumonia, worsened heart conditionsTransmission ModeDirect contact with infected mucus, inhalation of aerosols, contact with contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, hospitals, workplacesImportance of Influenza B VirusThe Influenza B virus is an enveloped member of...

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Human Herpesvirus 5 (Cytomegalovirus)

Human Herpesvirus 5 (Cytomegalovirus)

VirusHerpesvirus 5 (Cytomegalovirus)StructureEnvelopedGenomeDouble stranded DNAFamilyHerpesviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedMononucleosis-like illness in immunocompromised individualsSymptomsfever, hepatitis, sore throatPotential ComplicationsIn infants: hearing loss, vision loss, mental disability, seizuresTransmission ModeIn utero, contact with bodily fluids from an infected personSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, daycaresImportance of Human Herpesvirus 5 (Cytomegalovirus)Human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5), also known as...

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Feline Calicivirus

Feline Calicivirus

VirusFeline calicivirus (US-EPA human norovirus surrogate)StructureNon-envelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, positive senseFamilyCaliciviridaePrimary HostCatsDisease(s) CausedRespiratory illness, pneumonia, feverSymptomsRunny nose/eyes, sneezing, fever, mouth ulcersPotential ComplicationsPneumonia, lamenessTransmission ModeCat-to-cat contact: eye/nasal/mouth fluids   Fomite transmission: food/water bowlsSites of Community OutbreaksAnimal sheltersPet stores Veterinary clinicsImportance of Feline CalicivirusFeline calicivirus (FCV) is a non-enveloped member of the family Caliciviridae. It...

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Equine Herpesvirus 1

Equine Herpesvirus 1

VirusEquine Herpesvirus 1StructureEnvelopedGenomeDouble stranded DNAFamilyHerpesviridaePrimary HostHorsesDisease(s) CausedEquine rhinitisSymptomsRespiratory illness, abortionPotential ComplicationsEncephalomyelitisTransmission ModeContact with infected secretions, aerosolsSites of Community OutbreaksStables, ranchesImportance of Equine Herpesvirus 1Equine Herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is an enveloped member of the Herpesviridae family. EHV-1 affects horses and is highly prevalent in horse populations worldwide. It is...

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Measles Virus

Measles Virus

VirusMeasles VirusStructureEnvelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, negative senseFamilyParamyxoviridaePrimary HostHumansDisease(s) CausedMeaslesSymptomsFour-day fevers, cough, head cold, fever, sneezing, conjuctivitis, rashPotential ComplicationsDiarrhea, pneumonia, brain inflammation, blindnessTransmission ModeContact with infected secretions, close personal contact with infected personSites of Community OutbreaksSchools, daycares, churchesImportance of Measles VirusMeasles virus is an enveloped member of the Paramyxoviridae family....

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Bovine Rotavirus

Bovine Rotavirus

VirusBovine RotavirusStructureNon-envelopedGenomeDouble stranded RNAFamilyReoviridaePrimary HostCattleDisease(s) CausedGastroenteritis (calf scour)SymptomsDiarrhea, reluctance to eat or drinkPotential ComplicationsSevere dehydrationTransmission ModeFecal-oral, contact with contaminated fomitesSites of Community OutbreaksFarms, ranchesImportance of Bovine RotavirusBovine rotavirus is a non-enveloped member of the Reoviridae family. It is responsible for most cases of neonatal diarrhea in calves, also...

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Canine Parainfluenza Virus

Canine Parainfluenza Virus

VirusCanine Parainfluenza VirusStructureEnvelopedGenomeSingle stranded RNA, negative senseFamilyParamyxoviridaePrimary HostDogsDisease(s) CausedKennel coughSymptomsRespiratory illness, dry coughPotential ComplicationsPneumoniaTransmission ModeContact with infected secretions, aerosolsSites of Community OutbreaksKennels, sheltersImportance of Canine Parainfluenza VirusCanine parainfluenza virus is an enveloped virus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. First reported in the late 1960s in laboratory dogs, it...

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MS2 Bacteriophage

MS2 Bacteriophage

MS2 BacteriophageMS2 Bacteriophage is a small, non-enveloped member of the family Leviviridae. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. MS2 infects Escherichia coli by binding to a 'male' F pilus on their surface. Pili are filamentous structures used by bacteria to exchange genetic material, usually in the form of plasmids....

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Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus

VirusEpizootic Hemorrhagic Disease VirusStructureNon-envelopedGenomeDouble stranded RNAFamilyReoviridaePrimary HostRuminantsDisease(s) CausedEpizootic Hemorrhagic DiseaseSymptomsHigh fever, edema of neck and head, hemorrhaging, ulcersPotential ComplicationsMalnutrition, lamenessTransmission ModeBiting midgesSites of Community OutbreaksWhite-tailed deer populationsImportance of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease VirusEpizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) is a non-enveloped member of the Reoviridae family. EHDV causes Epizootic Hemorrhagic...

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